Greek, which constitutes a branch on its own in the Indo-European langauge family, has a past of 4000 years. It is recognized as the official language of Greece and South part of Republic of Cyprus. Greek is spoken by approximately 13 million people living in several countries in the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. Furthermore, it is also present as a minority language in Armenia, Albania, Ukraine and Romania.
The Greek alphabet went through several changes over centuries and its currently used modern version has 24 letters in total. 24 of these letters are consonants, 7 are vowels and 2 are combined letters. The history of Greek alphabet dates back to the Mycenaean civilization that existed between 16th and 12th centuries BC. The Mycenaean writing and Linear B syllable writing are considered the most ancient forms of the Greek alphabet.
It is known that the Greek alphabet has been used since c.a. 750 B.C. Greek is derived from the Phoenician alphabet and it is divided into 4 dialects in total. These are the following:
- Aeolic dialect
- Attika-Ionia dialect
- Arcado-Cypriot dialect
- Doric dialect
Greek has a very important position among languages with the most ancient past in history. Therefore, it is a language with great contributions to the European and Middle Eastern civilization. The effects of the Greek language are obvious in the fields of science, philosophy and art. Especially, the majority of terms in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, philosophy and political science have been borrowed from the Greek language into other Latin languages, albeit with small changes.
Several scientific and technical words in many languages with English ranking the first originate from Greek, especially those that end in -logy. Furthermore, not only words of Greek origin, but also several letters from the Greek alphabet such as (α), beta (β), theta (θ) gamma (γ) epsilon and sigma (σ) are currently used in several important equations and formulations in mathematics, statistics and natural sciences.